Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement? a. marty knocks over his mother's prize fern so she gives him a time out. b. gwen mows the lawn and her dad takes her out for ice cream. c. tara takes an aspirin, and her headache begins to go away. d. peter comes in late from his lunch and is fired from his job.
(B) Peter comes in late from his lunch and is fired from his job.
Negative reinforcement is a process that is used to make aware and teach specific behavioral characteristics. The use of the negative reinforcement is done to remove the uncomfortable and unpleasant response in behavior.
Among the options given B is the correct option. As Peter behavior of negligence and being late can offend the higher authority and the behavior can be considered as unacceptable. Thus, it is indicating the negative reinforcement.
A negative reinforcement is rewards for engaging in a behavior.
Explanation:A negative reinforcement is the unavoidable behaviors and removing them or taking them away makes the environment fell better. As thinking to take an antacid before tacking a spicy meal is an example of the negative reinforcement. It can also be related to the subject such as math or bad smell or bad taste and as a reinforcement is a method to strengthen the occurrence of the past behavior.
a) Vanna fastens her seatbelt as soon as she gets in her car to stop the annoying alert sound
In operating conditioning, reinforcement refer to a consequence that is applied in order to increase the probability that the desired behavior takes place again in the future.
Reinforcement can be either positive or negative:Positive reinforcement: It gives the person something that the person likes in order to increase the probability that the behavior takes place again.Negative reinforcement: It takes away something the person doesn't like in order to increase the probability that the behavior takes place again.
Punishment is the opposite, and it's the consequence applied in order to decrease the probability that the undesired behavior takes place again.
Punishment can also be positive or negative:Positive punishment: It gives something the person doesn't like in order to decrease the probability that the behavior takes place again.Negative punishment: It takes away something the person likes in order to decrease the probability that the behavior takes place again.
Now we're going to see which of the options refers to negative reinforcement:
a) Vanna fastens her seatbelt as soon as she gets in her car to stop the annoying alert sound: The desired conduct would be that Vanna fastens her seatbelt. As soon as she does that the annoying alert stops. Thus, this is an example of negative reinforcement since it takes away something the person doesn't like (the annoying alert) to make Vanna fasten her seatbelt.
b) Drake no longer cuts class now that his parents confiscated his iPod:
In this case, Drake's parents took away his iPod but this is something that he liked so it is not considered reinforcement but negative punishment (to take away something that the person likes so that the conduct doesn't take place) since they did that as a punishment for cutting classes.
c) Maria now buys a different brand of cigarettes to get two packs for the price of one: This brand is giving Maria a positive reinforcement (giving something she likes such as two pack of cigarettes for the price of one pack) so that Maria buys more cigarettes. Thus, this is positive reinforcement.
d) Nate no longer arrives late at work following a reprimand from his boss:
In this case, Nate's boss used something Nate didn't like (a reprimand) to diminish the behavior, thus this is a positive punishment.
A. Jeff wakes up a few seconds before his alarm clock goes off in order to avoid the obnoxious alarm sound.
It is defined as the behavioural principle in which a behavior or a response is strengthened and stronger by removing, avoiding, stopping a aversive stimulus or a negative outcome.
Out of the given options, example of negative reinforcement is:- A. Jeff wakes up a few seconds before his alarm clock goes off in order to avoid the obnoxious alarm sound. In this example, Jeff's closing the alarm a few seconds before in order so to avoid a negative outcome.
Answer and Explanation:
Positive reinforcement involves giving reward for desired behaviour so as to reinforce and make that behavior happen again. Negative reinforcement involves removing bad consequences so as to get desired behaviour or make certain behavior happen again.
In the above, Mr. Kerrigan rewards his son with an ice cream to stop screaming. This is called positive reinforcement. His son Billie, screams to get ice cream, and stops screaming after he gets ice cream. This is negative reinforcement.
Mr. Kerrigan can bring ice cream when he goes to pick up his son Billie from soccer practice. This way Billie won't have to scream when they pass the Dairy Queen sign.
b. making a child sit in the corner until they say "I'm sorry"
Negative reinforcement: In psychology, the term negative reinforcement is a part of operant conditioning which is being described by one of the famous psychologist and behaviorist named B. F. Skinner.
In operant conditioning, the negative reinforcement is referred to as a behavior or a response that is being strengthened by avoiding, stopping, or removing a particular aversive stimulus or negative outcome.
In other words, the negative reinforcement is considered as a punishment or sanction for not doing something.
Because the cold cloth has a positive effect, the answer must be Positive Reinforcement.
Nagging a spouse to stop smoking.
Negative reinforcement refers to a situation in which a particular behaviour is strengthened by removing a negative outcome. This concept is part of the theory of operant conditioning by B. F. Skinner. In this example, the person would stop smoking (desired behaviour) in order to avoid the nagging of a spouse (negative outcome). Therefore, this is an example of a negative reinforcement.