Use the passage below to answer all parts of the question that follows. “It is true that if men were good and perfect, they would never take up arms for the sake of religion. Yet, we cannot deny that religion, good or bad, can arouse men’s passions more than anything else. No belief penetrates more deeply into the hearts of men than religion or divides them more widely from each other. Indeed, an Englishman and a Frenchman of the same faith are closer in friendship than two Frenchmen from the same city, subject to the same lord, who have different faiths. Religious difference can deter the subject from obeying his king and can produce rebellion. For this reason, we must remove this evil and remedy it through a religious council of the kingdom so that we may not bring war into the kingdom through rebellion. If the decline of our church has given birth to heresies, then its reform may serve to extinguish them. We must henceforth assail our religious enemies with the proper weapons of religious conflict: charity, prayer, persuasion, and the word of God. Let us banish those devilish names— ‘Lutheran,’ ‘Huguenot,’ ‘Papist’— that breed only faction and sedition. Let us retain only one name: ‘Christian.’” Michel de L’Hôpital, Catholic chancellor of the kingdom of France, speech to the Estates-General (parliament) of the city of Orléans, France, 1560 a) Identify ONE purpose of the speech. b) Identify ONE historical development that may have influenced the views expressed in the speech. c) Identify ONE piece of evidence used by the author to support his argument that religion “can arouse men’s passions more than anything else.”
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Christian.’ Michel de L’Hôpital, Catholic chancellor of France, wrote to the parliament to dissuade the rebellion and violence through the unification of Christianity. As said in the text, "we cannot deny that religion...can arouse men’s passions more than anything else [because] no belief penetrates more deeply... than religion or divides them." There was often heresy, religious enemies, and conflict when the topic of religion would come up and many individuals would fight for their point of view in their belief.
A historical development that may have influenced the views expressed in this speech was the expansion of Christianity and its denominations or separate beliefs within the religion. In the period circa 1450-1750, the Protestant reforms marked a break and Christian traditions, this eventually led to the Protestant churches and Catholic growth. These political reforms often led to polarization between certain Empires or countries as religion was a strong factor in one's will to fight. This can be found in the passage by, "...men... take up arms for the sake of religion...[as it] arouses men's passion more than anything."
One piece of evidence used by the author to support his argument that religion "can arouse men's passions more than anything else", can be found when Michel talks about the division between 2 fellow French subjects, but the joining of brotherhood, by religion, in a Frenchman and Englishman. He writes, " an Englishman and a Frenchman of the same faith are closer in friendship than two Frenchmen from the same city, subject to the same lord, who have different faiths." Religious differences can deter a subject from obeying his leader or ruler and eventually can produce rebellion. The rebellion of religious indifference can even cause one, normally peaceful and good individual, to go to war and bear arms against one another.
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