The Principle of Le Chatelier states that if a system in equilibrium is subjected to a disturbance, the system will react in such a way that it will diminish the effect of that disturbance. Thus, when the concentration of one of the substances in an equilibrium system is changed, the equilibrium varies in such a way that it can compensate for this change.
For example, if the concentration of one of the reactants is increased, the equilibrium shifts to the right or to the side of the products. Also, if you add more reagents, the reaction will move even more to the right until the balance is re-established again, increasing the quantity of products.
In this way, adding HCl to a solution of CuSO4 will produce the following reaction:
CuSO4 (aq) + 2HCl (aq) ⇔ CuCl2 (aq) + H2SO4 (aq)
Initially the solution of CuSO4 in water will be blue, but when adding HCl the solution will change color to green, since the aqueous solutions of CuCl2 are green. By adding more HCl this color will intensify as the balance shifts to the right, producing more CuCl2 and H2SO4.
On the other hand, adding NH3 to a solution of CuSO4 will produce the following reaction
CuSO4 (aq) + 4NH3 (aq) ⇔ [Cu(NH3)4] SO4 (s)
Thus, by adding NH3 to the CuSO4 solution we will observe the formation of a precipitate corresponding to [Cu(NH3) 4] SO4. When adding more NH3, the formation of more precipitate will be observed as the equilibrium moves to the right, producing a greater quantity of [Cu (NH3) 4] SO4.
The complete question will be;
Explain the effects of nh3 and hcl on the cuso4 solution in terms of LeChatelier's principle.
Answer : The reactants and products in the observed reaction are equal as they are in chemical equilibrium state
So, for example , in this reaction A + B ↔ C+ D ,
if we add more A + B(reactants) and the reaction system will go to the right to produce more C + D (products) until and equlibrium state is established;
If we add more C+ D into the reaction and the system will shift to the left until an equlibrium is produced.
So, here in the reaction of ammonia and hydrochloric acid the reaction will produce ammonium chloride which will produce more of copper chloride in the solution turning it light blue in colour.