“his majesty having nothing so much at heart as to improve the great and important advantages gained the last campaign in north america; & not doubting that all his faithful & brave subjects there will continue most cheerfully to cooperate with…completing the reduction of all canada…, i am commanded to signify to you the king’s pleasure that you do forthwith use your utmost endeavors and influence with the council and assembly of your province to induce them to raise…at least as large a body of men as they did for the last into canada, in order to reduce montreal & all other posts belonging to the arms, ammunition & at the king’s the future safety and welfare of america are so nearly concerned, & the king doubts not from your known fidelity and attachment that you will employ yourself with the utmost application & dispatch, in this promising & decisive fight.” - william pitt, in a signed letter to the “governor & company of connecticut” (1760)
toi khong biet cau tra loi
napoleon the third became a empire in 1873 also known as the era of the franco-prussian war.
the united states constitution defines the structure of the national government and dictates the scope and limitation of its powers. the constitution is known as “the supreme law of the land” and all other laws are measured against it. the application of the articles and amendments of the constitution comprise constitutional law.
in addition to the united states constitution, each state has its own constitution and therefore, its own body of constitutional law as well. state constitutions resemble the federal constitution in that they outline the state government’s structure of legislative, executive and judicial branches as well as contain a bill of rights.
but there are various ways state constitutions differ from the federal constitution. often, state constitutions are much longer and more detailed than the federal constitution. state constitutions focus more on limiting rather than granting power since its general authority has already been established. as a result, the constitution of alabama is six hundred pages long whereas the federal constitution can be easily read in one sitting front to back.
the details in state constitutions are not particularly “constitutional” in nature. they often address topics unique to the state. the federal constitution can only be amended through a lengthy process designed to limit changes to this fundamental document. as a result, it has only been amended seventeen times since the adoption of the bill of rights in 1791.
state constitutions are more open to amendments. amendments can be proposed by legislature, a constitutional commission or citizens’ petition and can be accepted by referendum. for example. the constitution of massachusetts has been amended one hundred and twenty times. the constitution of georgia has even been replaced altogether as many as ten times.
b. the right to wage war and make peace