An electron is ejected into a horizontal uniform e⃗ field at a parallel horizontal velocity of v0. assume the electron's initial position x0, initial velocity v0, time t, magnitude of electric field e, electron's mass m, and the magnitude of the electron's charge |e|. ignore the force that earth exerts on the electron. assume the e⃗ field is in the same direction as the initial velocity. part a define the equation for the electron's velocity. express your answer in terms of the variables v0, |e|, t, e, and m.
In the attached image the Lewis equation is shown where it is shown how two oxygens react with two hydrogens to meet the octet of the electrons.
Hydrogen peroxide is one of the most named chemicals since it is not only sold as "hydrogen peroxide" in pharmacies but it is also one of the great weapons of immune defense cells to defend ourselves against anaerobic bacteria.
The disadvantage of this compound is that when dividing it forms free oxygen radicals that are considered toxic or aging for our body.
The attached figure is the Lewis structure for the reaction.
The Lewis structure is a structure of the molecule in which valence electrons are represented as points that are located between the atoms that are linked, such that a pair of points means a simple covalent bond (line). The points representing non-bond electrons are placed adjacent to the atoms to which they are associated.
The Lewis formula is structural representation that indicates the bonding between atom of a molecule by line and dots used to indicates the electron position around the atoms, electron pair is known as lone pair of electrons shown by pair of dots. The electrons indicated in the structure are valence electrons.
The given atoms are and .
, whose atomic number is 7.
Electronic configuration for is .
Number of valence shell electrons for is 5.
, whose atomic number is 8.
Electronic configuration for is .
Number of valence shell electrons for is 6.
The Lewis formula for and is shown in the image.
The atoms combine to form molecule in order to complete their octet that is to get 8 electrons in their valence shell and get stabilize in nature.
The total number of valence shell electrons in is:
The distribution of electrons in the atom will take place in such a way that formation of triple bond will take place between two nitrogen atoms and a single bond will form between nitrogen and oxygen atom. In order to complete their octet, the nitrogen atom in center will possess 1+ formal charge and oxygen will possess 1- charge (oxygen is electronegative atom). Thus, results in formation of neutral molecule.
The formal charge on each atom is calculated using:
The Lewis formula of is shown in the image.
The Lewis structure corresponding to the reactants and products in the reaction is attached in the image.
The free radicals are high energy chemical species that must stabilize themselves either via electron combination with another free radical or abstraction of proton from another radical.
The Lewis structure is the chemical representation of an element along with the nonbonding pairs. For covalent molecules, the number of electrons involved in bonding and the remaining nonbonding pairs can be represented while writing the Lewis structures. Lewis structures along with the formal charges that they carry help predict the geometry, polarity, and reactivity of the molecules.
The nitrogen radical itself is unstable, and nitrogen monoxide also has an unpaired electron. So these two reactants can stabilize themselves by combination of their unpaired electron and form dinitrogen oxide molecule.
Lewis structure of :
The total number of valence electrons of is calculated as,
Total valence electrons = [(2) (Valence electrons of N) + (1) (Valence electrons of O)]
It is the charge that an atom acquires in a molecule assuming that the electron pairs that constitute the bond pairs are shared equally between the two atoms, irrespective of their electronegativities.
The formula to calculate the formal charge on an atom is as follows:
O forms one single bond with a nitrogen atom and 3 lone pairs are present on it.
Total number of valence electrons in the free oxygen atom is 6.
Total number of nonbonding electrons in O is 6.
Total number of bonding electrons in O is 2.
Substitute these values in equation (1) to find the formal charge on O.
Total number of valence electrons in the free nitrogen atom is 5.
Total number of nonbonding electrons in N is 0.
Total number of bonding electrons in N is 6.
Substitute these values in equation (1) to find the formal charge on N.
The formal charge of nitrogen is +1.
Nitrogen atom has 5 valence electrons, and oxygen atom has 6 valence electrons. The central nitrogen atom forms a triple bond with other nitrogen atom and a single bond with oxygen atom. The central nitrogen atom, therefore, acquire positive charge and oxygen atom will acquire negative charge. Therefore the Lewis structure of is attached in the image.
1. Molecular shape around the central atoms in the amino acid glycine:
2. The main purpose of conducting experiments:
Grade: Senior School
Chapter: Molecular structure and chemical bonding
Keywords: Lewis structure, valence electrons, NO, formal charge, N2O, oxygen, double bonds, single bond, bonding electrons, non-bonding electrons, total valence electrons and resonance hybrid.