The correct answer is characterization.
Characterization refers to the method where an author creates his or her characters, by giving them particular qualities and flaws. These characters may or may not change and develop throughout that piece of literature, depending on whether they are dynamic or static characters.
Perception refers to how other characters/readers view someone; social impact is the effect that a work of literature may have on the society; physical setting is the setting where the story unfolds.
"Characterization is a literary device that is used step-by-step in literature to highlight and explain the details about a character in a story. It is in the initial stage in which the writer introduces the character with noticeable emergence. After introducing the character, the writer often talks about his behavior; then, as the story progresses, the thought-processes of the character."
I think characterization
Usually the way a character is presented is by the use of characterization to give them certain traits and qualities
Your answer would be c I believe